Solo disponible en Inglés


Nordic Skiing Rules and Regulations


November 2013






Section 1                                                                                          5


200                Regulations for IPC Nordic Skiing                               5


201                IPCNS Competitions                                                      6


202                IPCNS Calendar                                              7


203                IPC Nordic Skiing Race Licence                                  9


204                Race Licence Pre-requisites                                    10


205                Competitors Obligations and Rights                           11


206                Sponsorships and Advertising                                  11


207                Advertising and Commercial Markings                 11


208                Points System, Rankings and Trophies                   12


210                Organisation of Competition                                  12


211                The Organisation                                                            12


213                Invitations/Programme                                            13


214                Announcements                                                            14


215                Entries                                                                             14


216                Competition and Sanction Fees                              15


217                Team Captain’s Meeting                                   16


218                Draw                                                                       16


219                Publication of results                               17


221                Prizes                                                          17


222                Team officials, coaches, service personnel,

                       suppliers and firm’s representatives                      18 

223                Competitor Medical Examinations and

                      Compliance  with the IPC Anti-Doping Code             19


224                Competition Equipment                                                          20


225                Sanctions                                                                     22


226                Procedural Guidelines                                            24


227                Appeals                                                                26


228                Violation of sanctions                                                    28


Section 2                                                                                                            29


300 Cross-Country Competitions                                                29


A. Organisation                                                                                         29


301                The Organising Committee (OC)                                                         29


302                The Competition Officials                                                                              29


303                The Jury and its duties                                 32


304                Reimbursement of expenses                                                              37


305                Team Captain’s Meeting                                   38


B. IPC Nordic Skiing Competitions                                                                                                               40


310                Competition Formants and Programmes                      40


311                Cross-Country and Biathlon  Competition 

                        Courses                                                                           43


312                The Cross-Country and Biathlon Stadium             47


313                Official entries for the organizer                                   49


314                Starting Order                                                                    51


315                Start Procedures                                                    53


316                Timing                                                                                                          57


317                Results                                                  60


C. Competition Formats                                              64


321                Interval Start Competitions                                        64


324                Pursuit                                                                      67


325                Individual Sprint Competitions                                     69


327                Relay Competitions                                                                                                      74


328                IPC Biathlon Competitions                                                  79


Specific Biathlon Regulations                                                    91


D. The Competition and the Competitors                                                                                         103


341                Requirements of the competitors                                      103


342                Medical examinations                                                                  103


343                Responsibilities of the competitors

                       (including guides)                                                          104


344                Responsibilities of officials and others                 107


E. Not permitted to start, sanctions                                                          108


351                Not permitted to start                              108


352                Sanctions                                                                    108


F. Protests and Appeals                                                          112


361                Protests                                                                                                                                 112


                       Section 1


200                            Regulations for IPC Nordic Skiing


200.1                        Applicability


All competitions on the IPC Nordic Skiing (IPCNS) Calendar must be organised in accordance with the IPC Handbook and IPC Nordic Skiing Rules and Regulations.


200.2                        Participation


Competitions listed in the IPCNS Calendar are only open to all properly licensed competitors entered by their National Paralympic Committees (NPC) or designated National Ski Association (NSA) or National Ski Federation (NSF) or in accordance with quotas established for the respective competition.


The IPC recognizes only one national organisation per nation to enter competitors in IPC competitions. However, the NPC will maintain the exclusive right and recognition to enter athletes from their nation in the Paralympic Winter Games and IPC Biathlon and Cross-Country Skiing World Championships.


200.3                        Special Regulations


The IPCNS Sport Technical Committee (STC) can authorise a National Paralympic Committee or their designated NSA/NSF to adopt rules and regulations to organise national or international competitions with different grounds for qualification but only provided that they do not go beyond the limits laid down in the present rules.


200.4                        Control


All sanctioned competitions must be supervised by a Technical Delegate of the IPC.


200.5                        Sanctions/Penalties


Every legal sanction imposed and published in respect of a competitor, official or trainer or Federation/Association will be recognised by the IPC and the National Paralympic Committee.


201                           IPCNS Competitions



201.1                        The following Nordic Skiing competitions are sanctioned by the IPC and are subject to regulations regarding participation and/or qualification:


201.1.1                     Paralympic Winter Games (PWG) and IPC Nordic Skiing World Championships (WCH),


201.1.2                     IPC Nordic Skiing (Cross Country and Biathlon) World Cups.


201.2                        The following Nordic Skiing competitions may be sanctioned by the IPC and when sanctioned are subject to regulations regarding participation and/or qualification:


201.2.1                     IPC Nordic Skiing Continental Cups (COC)


201.2.2                     European Cup (EC)


201.2.3                     North American Cup (NAC) or NORAM


201.2.4                     Asian Cup (AC)


201.2.5            Southern Hemisphere Cup (SHC)


201.2.6                     International IPCNS Competitions (IPCNS)


201.2.7                     Open National Championships (NC)


201.3                        IPCNS Disciplines


A discipline is a branch of a sport and may comprise one or several events. For example Cross-Country Skiing and Biathlon are IPCNS Disciplines, whereas the Cross-Country Sprint is an Event.


201.4                        IPCNS Events


An event is a competition in a sport or in one of its disciplines. It results in a ranking and gives rise to the award of medals and/or diplomas.


201.5                        Types of Competitions


International IPCNS competitions consist of:


201.5.1            Cross Country Skiing Events


Cross Country Sprint, Cross Country Short Distance, Cross Country Middle Distance, Cross Country Long Distance, Cross Country Relay.


201.5.2                     Biathlon Events


Biathlon Short Distance, Biathlon Middle Distance, Biathlon Long Distance, Biathlon Pursuit.


201.6                        IPCNS World Championship Programme


201.6.1                     To be included in the programme of the IPCNS World Championships, events must have a recognised international standing both numerically and geographically, and have been included for at least one season in the World Cup before a decision about their admission can be considered.

201.6.2                     A single event cannot simultaneously give rise to both an individual and a team ranking.


202                            IPCNS Calendar


The competition year begins 1 July and runs to 30 June of the following year.


202.1                        Bidding and Announcement


202.1.1                     Any National Paralympic Committee, designated NSA/NSF or other authorised organisation (eg. Local Organizing Committee - LOC) is entitled to bid to organise the IPC Biathlon and Cross-Country Skiing World Championships in accordance with the IPC Bid Application Process for World Championships.


202.1.2                     Any National Paralympic Committee, designated NSA/NSF or other authorised organisation is entitled to submit a Host Expression of Interest for any IPCNS Race (WC, COC, NC, IPCNS).

In order to achieve a fixed competition calendar at least two years in advance, the following deadlines apply for the receipt of the Host Expression of Interest.




The Interest Forms are published on the IPC Nordic Skiing website and must be sent to         Calendar Planning and Allocation of Competitions


Calendar planning is coordinated by the IPCNS STC in consultation with IPC Management. The allocation of the competitions will be communicated by IPCNS through electronic communication with the National Paralympic Committees, designated NSA/NSF or LOC. In the case of IPC World Cup and World Championship competitions, the calendars are subject to the approval of the IPCNS STC and IPC Management.         Homologations


Courses used for Paralympic Winter Games and World Championships must be homologated by the IPCNS. Homologation should be completed by one year prior to the competition. Courses that are FIS homologated may be accepted for standing categories only. Courses for sit-ski athletes will require IPCNS homologation.


World Cup venues and other sanctioned event venues will be subject to site inspection and course approval.


Refer to the Homologation Guide for standards and procedures.         Publication of the IPCNS Calendar


The IPC Nordic Skiing Calendar will be published by IPCNS on the website: It will be continuously updated to reflect cancellations, postponements and other changes.         Postponements


In the case of a postponement/cancellation of a listed race from the IPC Calendar, the LOC or hosting NPC or designated NSA/NSF must inform the IPC immediately and a new invitation or notification must be released on the IPCNS website.


202.1.3            Appointment of Race Organiser


When an National Paralympic Committee, or designated NSA/NSF or an authorised organisation appoints a Race Organizer (LOC); the NPC/NSA/NSF shall send the IPC a copy of the written agreement between the NPC/NSA/NSF and this Race Organizer.


202.1.4            An organizer and its NPC failing to comply with the requirements set in the

Sanctioning Application and/or formal Contract or Agreement is subject to


sanctions by the IPC. This may result in deleting the races from the IPCNS calendar.


203                   IPC Nordic Skiing Race Licence


203.1                All athletes and guides competing in IPCNS races are required to have a valid IPCNS Licence.


203.2                Each NPC must purchase the Licences for athletes and guides on a seasonal basis as detailed below:


                     before 1 July (or before the first Southern Hemisphere races) if competing in Southern Hemisphere competitions

                        before 1 October for all other competitions.


203.2.1            Each athlete must pay a 60 € fee. Each visually impaired class athlete must also pay a 60 € fee for one guide. Additional guides (above 1 guide per athlete) must register and obtain a licence but do not have to pay a licence fee. When paying after the deadlines (rule 203.2), the fee will be 90€.


203.2.2            New athletes/guides, who have never held an IPCNS Licence, are allowed to purchase an IPCNS licence by paying a 60fee at any time during their first season.


203.2.3            These fees will be reviewed every 2 years by the IPC Governing Board.


203.2.4            Once the IPCNS Licence fee has been paid, and the athlete has signed and returned to IPC the Athletes’ Eligibility Code Form, the competitor will be included in the IPCNS Rankings Points List


203.3                To compete at IPCNS sanctioned events, an athlete must be IPCNS Classified.

Until an athlete has been Internationally (IPCNS) Classified, he/she will be designated N status (New). An athlete with N status may not compete at World Cup, World Championship, or Paralympic Winter Games.


203.3.1            Participation of N class athletes as fore runners or post runners at a WC or WCH event will be at the discretion of the jury. These athletes will not appear in the results list for the competition.


203.3.2            If competing at a sanctioned lower level event an athlete with N Status must compete in the class with the highest factor of his/her category (B3, LW 4, LW12).


203.4                By signing the Athletes Eligibility Code Form, the athlete/guide confirms possession of valid liability insurance for IPCNS events and assumes full responsibility, through his/her National Paralympic Committee.


203.5                The IPCNS Licence will only be issued to athletes/guides who meet the requirements of the IPC Athlete Nationality Code.


203.6                The IPCNS Licence will only be issued to athletes/guides who meet the requirements of the IPC Nordic Skiing minimum age limit requirements. In order to be eligible for IPCNS competitions, the athletes/guides must be 15 years old before the start of the competition event.

203.7                An athlete/guide whose licence has been suspended may have a new licence issued only after the IPCNS STC has verified that any sanctions imposed have been fulfilled.


204                   Race Licence Pre-requisites


204.1                The IPC shall not issue a licence to any athlete/guide who:


204.1.1            has conducted his or herself in a manner that violates the principles of Fair play or does not comply with the regulations outlined the IPC Anti-Doping Code,


204.1.2            accepts or has accepted, directly or indirectly, any money /payments for their participation at competitions,


204.1.3            has not signed the Athletes Eligibility Code Form,


204.1.4            does not meet the conditions outlined in the IPC Nationality Code or age limit requirement outlined in rule 203.6


204.1.5            is under suspension.



204.2                With the issuance of a licence and race entry the National Paralympic Committee assumes full responsibility and confirms that valid insurance (as per rule 205.6) for training and competition is in place for all its athletes and guides.


205                   Competitors Obligations and Rights


205.1                Athletes and guides must comply with the IPC Handbook, the IPC Nordic Skiing Rulebook and must comply with the instructions of the Jury.


205.2                Athletes and guides are not permitted to compete while under the influence of any substances or methods prohibited by the IPC Anti-Doping Code.


205.3                Athletes and Guides who do not attend the award ceremonies without prior notification may lose their claim to any prize granted including prize money (where applicable).


205.4                Athletes and guides must behave in an appropriate and sportsmanlike manner towards other competitors, members of the Organising Committee, officials and the public.


205.5                Athletes and guides are prohibited from betting on the outcome of competitions in which they are participating.


206                   Sponsorships and Advertising


206.1                Teams may enter into contracts with a commercial firm or organisation for financial sponsorship and or the supply of goods or equipment.


206.2                Display of Competition Equipment during Award Ceremonies


206.2.1            Competitors are not permitted to take off skis before crossing the red line in the finish area set by the organiser.


206.2.2            A competitor is not allowed to take equipment (skis, poles, ski boots, glasses) to the official ceremonies, which have anthems and/or flag raising. (For PWG specific regulations apply).


206.2.3            Holding or carrying equipment on the victory podium for press photos, pictures, etc. is permitted after the conclusion of the ceremonies involving anthems/flag raising. (For PWG specific regulations apply).


207                   Advertising and Commercial Markings


207.1                Athletes/guides are forbidden to display any advertising or commercial markings of brands related to tobacco, alcohol products or drugs (narcotics).


207.2               Obscene names and/or symbols on clothing and equipment are forbidden.


207.3                The advertising on equipment that is used during IPC Paralympic Winter Games must conform to the IPC Manufacturing and Trademark Guidelines. These guidelines apply equally to all NPC’s, their teams, as well as service personnel and suppliers.


208                   Points System, Rankings and Trophies


208.1               IPCNS Points System


The IPCNS point system will be used to rank athletes overall and is described in the IPC Nordic Skiing and World Cup Points Rules.


These rankings will be used for seeding according to rule 314.5.


208.2               IPCNS World Cup Point System


The IPCNS World Cup point system shall be used to rank athletes participating in the IPC Nordic Skiing World Cup Series and is described in the IPC Nordic Skiing and World Cup Points Rules.


210                   Organisation of Competition


211                   The Organisation


211.1               The Organiser


211.1.1            The organiser of an IPC competition is the person or group of people who make the necessary preparations and directly carry out the running of the competition at the venue.


211.1.2            If the NPC or designated National Ski Association or National Ski Federation itself is not the competition organiser, it may appoint an affiliated club or organisation to be the organiser.


211.1.3            The organiser must ensure that accredited persons accept the regulations regarding the competition rules and Jury decisions.


211.2               The Local Organising Committee (LOC)


211.2.1            The Local Organising Committee consists of those members (physical or legal) who are delegated by the organiser and approved by the IPC. It carries the rights, duties and obligations of the organiser.


212                   Insurance


212.1               The organizer must take out liability and accident insurance for all staff (IPC Personnel included), including volunteers, all other accredited staff and athletes and visitors to protect the LOC against any claim related to the activities of the Organising Committee. The IPC will additionally cover its employees and appointed officials, who are not members of the Organising Committee (e.g. TD, administrator personnel, medical supervisor, etc.), with liability insurance when they are acting on behalf of the IPC. Despite this coverage during the event, IPC staff is considered part of the LOC staff and the insurance coverage only will apply if the LOC insurance will decline a potential claim


212.2               Before the first training day or competition, the organiser must be in possession of a binder or cover notes issued by a recognised insurance company and present it to the Technical Delegate. The Organising Committee requires liability insurance with coverage of at least €700,000; whereby it is recommended that this sum is at least 2 million. Additionally, the policy must explicitly include liability insurance claims by any accredited participant, including athletes, against any other participant including but not limited to officials, course workers, coaches, etc.


212.3               All athletes and guides and team officials participating in IPC Nordic Skiing sanctioned events must carry accident insurance, in sufficient amounts to cover accident, transport and rescue costs including race risks and repatriation costs. The National Paralympic Committee’s or the designated National Ski Association is responsible for adequate insurance coverage of all the athletes the license and enter into an IPCNS race or event.


212.4               The National Paralympic Committee or designated National Ski Association or their athletes/guides or team officials must be able to show proof of the respective insurance coverage at any time on request of the IPCNS STC, one of its representatives, or the organising committee.


213                   Invitations/Programme


An invitation and programme (according to the standard template provided by IPCNS), must be published by the respective organisers for each competition listed in the IPC Calendar that must contain the following:


213.1               name, date and place of the competitions, together with information on the competition sites and the best ways of reaching them,


213.2               technical data on the individual competitions and conditions for participation,


213.3               names of principal officials,


213.4               time and place for the first team captains' meeting and the draw,


213.5               timetable for the beginning of the official training and the start times,


213.6               location of the official notice board,


213.7               time and place for the prize-giving,


213.8               final date of entry and address for entries, including telephone, telefax and e-mail address.


213.9               Cancellation / postponement policy.


214                   Announcements


214.1               The Organising Committee must publish an announcement for the event. It must contain the information required by art. 213. The announcement should be published a minimum of 90 days prior to the event.


214.2               Postponements or cancellations of competitions and programme alterations must be communicated immediately by telephone, e-mail or telefax to the IPC, all invited or entered NPCs or Teams and the appointed TD. Competitions moved to an earlier date must be approved by the IPC.


215                   Entries


215.1               For IPC WC and designated IPCNS competitions each NPC/NSF must submit its competition entries using the IPCNS online registration system ( according to the dates published on the corresponding competition invitation.


215.1.1            An LOC may request preliminary entry information for planning and accommodation purposes separate from the online registration.


215.2               Special entry timelines and procedures shall apply for the Paralympic Winter Games and World Championships.


215.3               At the request of an LOC, the IPCNS STC, the IPCNS Race Administrator will cancel a competitor’s entry in a race/event if at the second Team captain’s meeting his/her delegation has not covered the full costs of that competitor’s participation.


215.4               IPCNS will provide the LOC access to the online registration system in order to monitor entry data.


215.5               Only National Paralympic Committees or authorised National Ski Federations are entitled to submit entries for IPCNS Races (WCH, PWG).


All entries will minimally include the following information:


§Athlete/Guide Registration Number, (IPCNS Code)

§Family Name

§Given Name


§Date of Birth (DD/MM/YYYY),

§Name of National Paralympic Committee and/or designated NSA/NSF;

§Event (s) to be entered

§Sport Class

215.6               The IPC and the LOC may reject any entry/entries that do not comply with the above requirements.


216                   Competition and Sanction Fees


216.1               Race Entry Fee (Athletes)


The race entry fee is the amount that must be paid per athlete (including guides) to the LOC, for each race on the programme.

The Race Entry Fee is non-refundable in the event that the Jury cancels the race. The amount payable per competition type is as follows:




216.2                Competition Sanction Fee (Organizing Committee)


An Organizing Committee must pay all competition sanction fees to the IPC according to the terms and conditions of the contract/agreement. This Competition Sanction Fees are non-refundable.

The fees for each type of race are as follows:




217                   Team Captain’s Meeting


217.1               The time and location of the first team captains' meeting and of the draw must be shown in the programme. The invitations for all other meetings have to be announced to the team captains at their first meeting. Emergency meetings must be announced in good time.


217.2               Two representatives of each participating nation may attend the TCMs. More representatives may attend if space permits.


217.3               Representation by a substitute from another nation during discussions/voting at a team captains' meetings is not allowed.


217.4               Team Captains and coaches must comply with the IPC Rules and Regulations and the decisions of the Jury and respect the IPC Code of Ethics.


218                   Draw


218.1               Competitors' starting order for each event and each discipline is decided according to a specific formula by draw and/or by points order. The method for determining start order for each event and discipline is defined in the Sections 314 and 315.


218.2               Competitors will only be drawn if their written entries have been received before the closing date.


1 # entries means entries received by the organiser prior to the race, DNS cannot be deducted.


218.3               Competitors who have been drawn and are not present during the competition must be listed as DNS in the results.

218.4               If a starting order has been drawn and the competition has to be postponed to a different date, the draw must be repeated.


219                   Publication of results


219.1               The unofficial and official results will be published in accordance with the rules for the specific event. Official Results will also be posted on the IPCNS website.


219.2               In the event of a change in an athletes sport classification following first appearance or as the consequence of a successful appeal, the unofficial results may be adjusted before official results are posted according to the IPC Classification Code Model of Best Practice for Sport Class Changes following First- Appearance. This policy can be found in Chapter 1.3 of Section 2 of the IPC Handbook.


221                   Prizes


221.1               At World Championships and Paralympic Winter Games medals will be awarded to the top three competitors in each event.


221.2               At World Cup competitions prizes, titles or diplomas, provided by the LOC, will be awarded to the top three competitors in each event.


221.3               If two or more competitors finish with the same rank or receive the same points, they shall be given the same placing. They will be awarded the same medal, prizes, titles or diplomas. The allocation of medals, titles or prizes by drawing lots or by another competition is not allowed.


221.4               For visually impaired categories, if the athlete skied with a guide, the guide will also be awarded the same medal, prize, title or diploma awarded to the athlete. Only one guide per athlete in entitled to receive the same medal, prize, title or diploma. In the event an athlete has more than one guide, the team manager must communicate the name to the IPC and LOC representatives at the last Team Captains Meeting before the award ceremony.


221.5               All prizes are to be awarded no later than the final day of a competition or event series.


221.6               World Cup Trophies


221.6.1            A World Cup Trophy for the winner and medals for the top three (3) ranked athletes/guides will be awarded in each category/discipline and in the individual overall ranking competition.


221.6.2            Gender Overall: An Overall World Cup Trophy for the top overall male and female athlete/guide will be awarded


221.6.3            For VI Categories, if the athlete skied with a guide only one guide per VI athlete will be awarded per discipline and overall trophies. In the event an athlete has more than one guide, the team manager must communicate the name to the IPC and LOC representatives at the last Team Captains Meeting before the award ceremony.


221.6.4            The IPC Nordic Skiing STC will provide the Trophies and Medals.


222                   Team officials, coaches, service personnel, suppliers and firms representatives


222.1               Team officials (support staff, coaches, medical personnel, wax technicians) are required to register in the IPCNS SDMS. This registration will be valid for the entire season.


222.2               At competitions where accreditation controls are in place, the Organising Committee must provide the Technical Delegate with a list of persons accredited to the competition.


222.3               Accredited technical officials, team officials, service personnel and suppliers must perform their specified function. Individual organisers are free to accredit additional company representatives or other important persons.


222.4               Only the technical delegate, jury, and accredited persons with clearly visible accreditation have access to the field of play (course, start, finish, and biathlon range) according to their accreditation.


222.5               Gambling on Competitions


Competitors, trainers, team officials and technical officials are prohibited from betting on the outcome of competitions in which they are involved.


223                   Competitor Medical Examinations and Compliance with the IPC Anti-Doping Code


223.1               The National Paralympic Committee and/or the designated NSA/NSF are responsible for the fitness of their competitors to race. All competitors are required to undergo a thorough evaluation of their medical health. This evaluation is to be conducted within the competitor's own nation.


223.2               All competitors and guides must comply with and are subject to the rules and regulations outlined in the IPC Anti-Doping Code.


223.3               For the Visually Impaired category, guides can also be eligible for anti-doping controls.


223.4               Gender of the Competitor


If any question or protest arises as to the gender of the competitor, IPC shall assume responsibility for taking the necessary steps to determine the gender of the competitor.


223.5               Medical Services Required from Event Organisers


The health and safety of all those involved in an IPC competition is a primary concern and responsibility of all event Organisers. This includes the competitors as well as volunteers, course workers and spectators.


The specific composition of the medical support system is dependent on several variables:


§The size and level of the event being held (World Championships, World Cup, Continental Cup, National Championships, IPCNS level, etc.) together with the local medical standards of care and geographic locations and circumstances.

§ The estimated number of competitors, support staff and spectators.


The scope of responsibility for the Event Medical Organisation (competitors, support staff, spectators) should also be determined.


The Organiser / The Chief of Medical and Rescue Services must confirm with the race director or technical delegate that the required rescue facilities are in place before starting the official training or competition. In the event of an incident, or issue that prevents the primary medical plan from being utilized, the backup plan must be in place before recommencing the official training or competition.


224                   Competition Equipment


224.1               A competitor is responsible for the equipment that they use (skis, sit-skis, bindings, ski boots, suit, prostheses, goggles, ski poles, rifles etc). It is each competitor’s responsibility to check that the equipment they use conforms to the specifications and general safety requirements and is in working order.


224.2               The term competition equipment encompasses all items of equipment which the competitor uses in competitions. This includes clothing as well as apparatus with technical functions. The entire competition equipment forms a functional unit.


224.3               A competitor may only take part in an IPC sanctioned competition with equipment that complies with the IPC Sport Equipment Policy (IPC Handbook S3.10), Sport Classification Rules, and specific equipment rules included here in section 224. Additionally, the FIS Specifications for Competition Equipment/Commercial Markings as published annually by the FIS Committee for Competition Equipment apply to skiing equipment, and the IBU Equipment Rules (Annexes to the IBU Event and Competition Rules) apply to biathlon equipment.


224.4               In the event of any conflict or inconsistency between IPC, FIS and IBU equipment rules, interpretation by the IPCNS STC will apply. The IPCNS STC may specify additional rules, guidelines or variances to the FIS and IBU requirements.


224.5               All new developments in the field of competition equipment must be approved by the IPC Nordic Skiing STC. The IPC does not take any responsibility for the approval of new technical developments, which at the time of introduction may contain unknown dangers to health or cause an increase in the risk of accidents.


224.6               New developments must be submitted to the IPC Nordic STC before 1st September for the following season. The first year new developments can only be approved provisionally for the following season and must be finally confirmed prior to the subsequent competitive season. It is the responsibility of the competitor to seek final approval.


224.7               In principle unnatural or artificial aids which modify the performance of the competitors and /or constitute a technical correction of the individual’s physical predisposition to a defective performance, as well as competition equipment which impact the health of the competitors or increase the risk of accidents are to be excluded.


224.8               Equipment Controls


224.8.1            The IPCNS STC has full authority to control equipment.


224.8.2            Before and during the competition season or on submission of protests to the Technical Delegate at the competition concerned, various controls can be carried out by members of the IPCNS STC or Technical Delegate. This process will be coordinated by the STC Head of Technical Control and Officiating.


224.8.3            Should there be a clear violation of Equipment Regulations, the Jury will determine the sanction in accordance with Section 225.


224.8.4            Should there be a well-founded suspicion that regulations were violated, the equipment items must be confiscated immediately by the STC or Technical Delegates, in the presence of witnesses, and be forwarded sealed to the IPC, which will submit the items to a final control by the STC and/or an officially recognised laboratory as required.


224.8.5            No testing of equipment or material in independent laboratories may be requested at races where an IPC Equipment Controller or STC member or Technical Delegate has performed the controls, unless it can be demonstrated that the controls have not been carried out according to the rules.


224.8.6            In cases of protest against items of the competition equipment, the losing party will bear the investigation costs.


224.9               Equipment Rules


224.9.1            The Nordic sit-ski shall consist of a sitting device with a fixed seat, which is not adjustable during the race, mounted on a pair of cross-country skis or rolling devices (summer competition). No springs or flexible articulations are allowed in any segment of the sit ski, including the connection with the skis. The connection with the skis must be rigid.


The maximum allowable height difference between the point of contact of the buttock with the seat and the top of the ski is 40cm (including the cushion segment without load).


The sit-ski athlete shall be seated on the sit-ski at all times during the race, meaning that the athlete’s buttocks shall remain in contact with the seat in accordance with the IPC Nordic Skiing Classification Rules & Regulations.


To prevent movement of the buttocks off of the seat, the upper thigh (proximal femur) or hip must be strapped to the seat using a non-flexible material.


225                   Sanctions


225.1               General Conditions


225.1.1            An offence for which a sanction may apply and a penalty be imposed is defined as conduct that:


§is in violation or non-observance of competition rules, or

§constitutes non-compliance with directives of the jury or individual members of the jury in accordance with 224.2 or

§constitutes unsportsmanlike behavior


225.1.2            The following conduct shall also be considered an offence:


§attempting to commit an offence

§causing or facilitating others to commit an offence

§counselling others to commit an offence


225.1.3            In determining whether conduct constitutes an offence consideration should be given to:


§whether the conduct was intentional or unintentional,

§whether the conduct arose from circumstances of an emergency


225.1.4            All affiliated NPC’s and related associations, including their members registered for accreditation, shall accept and acknowledge these rules and sanctions imposed, subject only to the right to appeal pursuant to the IPC Handbook and IPC Nordic Skiing Biathlon and Cross Country Skiing Competition Rules.


225.2               Applicability


225.2.1            Persons


These sanctions apply to:


§all persons who are accredited by the IPC or the organiser for an event published in the IPC calendar (an event) both within and without the confines of the competition area and any location connected with the competition, and

§all persons who are not accredited, within the confines of the competition area


225.3               Penalties


225.3.1            The commission of an offence may subject a person to the following penalties:


§Reprimand - written or verbal

§Withdrawal of accreditation

§Denial of accreditation

§Monetary fine not more than EUR 100000.--

§A time penalty         NPC’s or designated NSA/NSF’s or affiliated organisation are liable to the IPC for the payment of any fines and incurred administrative expenses imposed on persons whose registration for accreditation they arranged.         Persons not subject also are liable to the IPC for fines and incurred administrative expenses. If such persons do not pay these fines, they shall be subject to a withdrawal of any permission to apply for accreditation to IPC events for a period of one year.


225.3.2            All competing competitors may be subject to the following additional penalties:



§Impairment of their starting position

§Forfeiture of prizes and benefits in favour of the organiser

§Suspension from IPC events


225.3.3            A competitor shall only be disqualified if his mistake would result in an advantage for him or disadvantage for others with regard to the end result, unless the Rules state otherwise in an individual case.


225.4               A jury may impose the penalties provided in 225.3.1 and 225.3.2, however they may not impose a monetary fine of more than EUR 5000.-- or suspend a competitor beyond the IPC event at which the offence occurred.


225.5               The following Penalty decisions may be given verbally:



§the withdrawal of accreditation for the current event from persons who had not been registered with the organiser through their NPC’s or affiliated Associations

      §the withdrawal of the accreditation for the current event from IPC- accredited persons

§the denial of accreditation to the current event from persons who are within the confines of the competition area or any other location connected with the competition.


225.6               The following Penalty decisions shall be in writing:


§monetary fines


§impaired starting position

§competition suspensions

§withdrawal of accreditation from persons who had been registered through their NPC or designated NSA or NSF.

§withdrawal of accreditation of IPC accredited persons


225.7               Written Penalty decisions must be sent to the offender (if it is not a competitor), the offender’s National Paralympic Committee and IPC Snow Sports Manager.


225.8               Any disqualification shall be recorded in the TD`s Report.


225.9               All penalties shall be recorded in the TD's Report.


226                   Procedural Guidelines


226.1               Competence of Jury


The Jury at the event (from their arrival on site until their departure) has the right to impose sanctions according to the above rules by majority vote. In the case of a tie, the chairman of the Jury has the deciding vote.


226.2             Within the location, especially during the training and the competition period, each voting Jury member is authorised to issue oral reprimands and withdraw the accreditation which is issued for the current event.


226.3               Collective Offences


If several persons commit the same offence at the same time and under the same circumstances, the Jury’s decision as to one offender may be considered binding upon all offenders. The written decision shall include the names of all offenders concerned, and the scope of the penalty to be assessed upon each of them. The decision will be delivered to each offender.


226.4               Limitation


A person shall not be sanctioned if proceedings to invoke such sanction have not been commenced against that person within 72 hours following the offence.


226.5               Each person who is a witness to an alleged offence is required to testify at any hearing called by the Jury, and the Jury is required to consider all relevant evidence


226.6               The Jury may confiscate objects that are suspected of being used in violation of equipment guidelines.


226.7               Prior to the imposition of a penalty (except in cases of reprimands and withdrawal of accreditation according to 225.5 and 226.2), the person accused of an offence shall be given the opportunity to present a defence at a hearing, orally or in writing.


226.8               All Jury decisions shall be recorded in writing and shall include:


226.8.1            The offence alleged to have been committed


226.8.2            The evidence of the offence


226.8.3            The rule (s) or Jury directives that have been violated


226.8.4            The penalty imposed.


226.9               The penalty shall be appropriate to the offence. The scope of any penalty imposed by the Jury must consider any mitigating and aggravating circumstances.


226.10              Remedies


226.10.1          Except as provided for in 226.11, a penalty decision of the Jury may be appealed in accordance with the provisions in the Competition Rules.


226.10.2          If an appeal is not filed within the deadline established in the Competition Rules, the penalty decision of the Jury becomes final.


226.11              The following decisions of the Jury are not subject to appeal:


226.11.1          Oral penalties imposed under 225.5 and 226.2


226.11.2          Monetary fines less than EUR 1'000.-- (One Thousand Euro) for single offence and a further EUR 2'500.-- for repeated offences by the same person.


226.12              In all remaining cases, appeals are to be directed to the IPC Board of Appeal as per section 227.


226.13              The Jury shall have the right to submit to the IPC Board of Appeal recommendations for penalties in excess of monetary fines of EUR 5'000.- and suspensions beyond the event in which the offence occurred (225.4).


226.14             The IPC Governing Board shall have the right to submit to the Board of Appeal comments with respect to any written penalty decisions by the Jury.


226.15              Costs of Proceedings


Fees and cash expenses, including travel expenses (costs of the proceedings) are to be calculated comparable to costs paid to TD's and are to be paid by the offender. In the case of a reversal of Jury decisions, in whole or in part, the IPC covers all costs.


226.16              Enforcement of Monetary Fines


226.16.1          The IPC oversees the enforcement of monetary fines and the costs of proceedings. Enforcement costs are considered costs of the proceedings.


226.16.2          Any outstanding monetary fines imposed on an offender is considered a debt of the National Association to which the offender is a member.


226.17              Disposition of Monetary Fines


All monetary fines are paid into the IPC Nordic Skiing STC budget.


226.18              These rules are not applicable to any violation of IPC Anti-Doping Rules.


227                   Appeals


227.1               Appointments


227.1.1            Every year at the STC Meeting, the IPC Snow Sports Manager (“Manager), in consultation with the STC Chair, shall appoint a 3-person panel to serve as the Board of Appeal (BoA), one of whom shall serve as chair.


227.1.2            If any member of the BoA will be unable to attend a major event (including by teleconference, if appropriate), the Manager may, for the sake of expediency, appoint a replacement to serve on the BoA for that event only.


227.1.3            No member of the BoA should sit if the circumstances of the Appeal are such that they may have a conflict of interest or may reasonably be seen as having a conflict or otherwise being biased either for or against the Appellant, or where they have been involved in the decision being appealed, including as a witness. Members of the Board of Appeal must disclose to the Chair any interest which could reasonably create the appearance of bias or prejudice. Such persons shall be recused at their own or the BoA Chair’s discretion. Generally, members of the same National Paralympic Committee or National Association as the offender whose case is under appeal shall be recused. Recused members may be replaced by the Manager in consultation with the STC Chair.


227.2               Responsibility


227.2.1            The BoA shall only hold hearings with respect to appeals by offenders from decisions of competition juries, or matters referred to it by competition juries recommending penalties in excess of those provided for in the Sanction rules.


227.2.2            Parties wishing to appeal must file a Notice of Appeal with the TD within 24 hours of their notice of the original decision. The Notice of Appeal must set out in full the grounds of the appeal, the evidence to be relied upon and the legal and other arguments. It must also contain the Appellant’s contact information.


227.2.3            The Appellant must cover the cost of 300(or equivalent currency) when submitting the appeal to the IPC Staff person


227.2.4            If the Notice of Appeal does not comply with these Rules the Appeal Chairperson shall issue a written decision dismissing the Appeal and shall notify the appellant as soon as is practicable. The initial notification may be verbal. A fresh Notice of Appeal can be made within the applicable time limit for brining appeals.


227.3               Procedures


227.3.1            The decisions of the BoA shall be final and shall be made by majority vote.


227.3.2            Appeals should be decided as expeditiously as possible after receipt of the Appeal by the BoA Chair.


227.3.3            The BoA Chair should, as quickly as practicable, inform all affected parties of the appeal and solicit responses or other evidence to assist the BoA in deciding the Appeal.


227.3.4            The BoA shall decide on the location and format for the Hearing, which may include teleconference. The BoA members are required to respect the confidentiality of the appeal until the decision is made public and to consult only with the other members of the panel during the deliberations.


The BoA Chair may request additional evidence from any of the parties involved, providing this does not require disproportionate means.


227.3.5            The BoA shall allocate costs of the appeal pursuant to 226.15.


227.3.6            Decisions of the BoA may be announced orally at the conclusion of the hearing.

The decision, together with its reasoning, shall be submitted in writing to the IPC, which shall deliver them to the parties involved, their National Paralympic


Committees or associations and all members of the Jury whose decision was appealed. In addition, the written decision shall be available at the IPC Office.


228                   Violation of sanctions


Where there is a violation of a sanction that has been imposed (according to Section 225 or the IPC Anti-Doping Rules), the Governing Board may impose such further and other sanctions that it considers appropriate.


228.1               Sanctions against individuals may include:


§a written reprimand;

§a monetary fine not to exceed the sum of EUR 100,000.00;

§competition suspension at the next level of sanction - for example if a three month suspension for a doping offence was imposed, the next level is a two year suspension; if a two year suspension for a doping offense was imposed, the next level is a lifetime suspension;


§withdrawal of accreditation from individuals involved.


228.2               Sanctions against a National Paralympic Committee, National Ski Association, or National Ski Federation may include:


§cancellation of future IPC events in the country involved;


§withdrawal of some or all IPC membership rights, including participation in all IPC calendar competitions.


Section 2


300                   Cross-Country Competitions


300.1               IPC sanctioned competitions are governed by the following IPC publications: IPC Handbook, IPC Nordic Skiing Rules – first section (200s), second section (300s), Homologation Guidelines, Jury Guidelines, IPC Nordic Skiing Classification Rules and Regulations, IPCNS Points Rules, IPCNS World Cup Rules approved by the IPC Governing Board.


A. Organisation


301                   The Organising Committee (OC)


301.1               An OC must be appointed for an international competition. The OC consists of members appointed by the NPC National Paralympic Committee, National Association or authorized organisation. The OC administers the rights, duties and obligations of the organiser. See article 210.


302                   The Competition Officials


302.1                Appointment of the Competition Officials


302.1.1            IPC appointed officials are:


§At Paralympic Winter Games (PWG) and World Championships (WCH): the Technical Delegate (TD), two Assistant TD (Ass TD), the IPC Race director (RD) and one Jury Member. The International Referee Timing & Results (IR Timing & Results), the International Referee Biathlon (IR Biathlon) and the classifiers will be appointed by the IPC Nordic STC if needed.


§At World Cup (WC) the IPC TD, the International Referee Timing & Results (IR Timing & Results), the International Referee Biathlon (IR Biathlon) and the IPC Classifiers will be appointed by the IPC Nordic STC.

§At IPC Approved Regional Competitions, the NSA will appoint a TD in cooperation with the IPC NS STC.


302.1.2            NSA appointed officials are:


§At WC competitions: National Assistant TD


302.1.3            Organising Committee Appointed Members


302.1.3.1         The Organiser appoints all other members. For all Paralympic Winter Games (PWG) and World Ski Championships (WCH) the following key technical officials have to be submitted to the IPC for approval:


§Chief of Competition

§Ass. Chief of Competition

§Race Secretary

§Chief of Course

§Chief of Stadium

§Chief of Timing & Results

§Chief of range (BT)


302.1.3.2         The Chair of the OC or his/her Assistant represents the OC to the public and chairs the meetings of the OC. He/she cooperates before and after the competition closely together with the IPC. Within the OC there must be one person appointed as the Chief of Competition who is qualified to conduct the competition and to supervise the technical aspects of the competition as well as be the main interface with the jury. The Competition Officials are specialists who are particularly well qualified for their assigned duties. Each official is allowed to do only one job. Officials must be easily recognized by their uniforms, armbands or badges.


302.2               Competition Officials Appointed by the Chief of Competition


302.2.1            The Competition Officials are


§Competition secretary

§Chief of course

§Chief of timekeeping and data processing

§Chief of stadium

§Chief of competition control

§Chief of range (BT)


The chief of competition will appoint other officials as necessary.


302.3               The Competition Officials and their Duties


302.3.1            The chief of competition is responsible for all aspects of the competition and supervises the work of all other competition officials. He must periodically inform the jury about the preparatory work and about changes that may have to be made. He must provide course maps, course profiles, stadium plans, time-table etc. to the jury members in due time prior to their arrival to the competition site.


302.3.2            The competition secretary is responsible for all secretarial work concerned with the technical aspects of the competition: entries, team captains’ meeting, minutes, publication of start lists and results, protests.


302.3.3            The chief of course is responsible for the preparation (grooming, markings, and fencing) of the competition course, ski testing areas, warm-up course as well as proper setup and safe placement of any commercial marketing frames and structures.


302.3.4            The chief of timekeeping and data processing is responsible for the direction and coordination of the officials working in the timing area (starter, finish referee, finish controller, manual timers, electronic timers, intermediate timekeepers and calculations officials' work).


302.3.5            The chief of stadium is responsible for all activities in the stadium field of play” area. This includes the course preparation and markings in the stadium, proper setup and safe placement of any commercial marketing frames and structures in the stadium, safe and well-marked pathways for competitors to the start. The chief of stadium is responsible for ensuring sufficient areas for athletes clothing, coaches, equipment suppliers, anti-doping officials and medical staff in the finish area as well as good cooperation with media and ceremonies in the finish area.


302.3.6            The chief of control and competition security is responsible to organise together with the Jury the suitable placing of controllers, to collect all pertinent information and control cards after the competition and to report any incidents to the Jury.


Two controllers are necessary for each post. The number and placing of the controllers is determined without notifying the competitors, coaches or other officials. The c